U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate Prestressed Concrete.
What is Prestressed Concrete?
Prestressed Concrete is a kind of concrete component mainly used in construction engineering and bridge engineering.
To avoid premature cracks in reinforced concrete structures, make full use of high-strength steel bars and high-strength Concrete, and try to reduce the tensile stress generated by the components by applying external forces before the concrete structures or components are subject to the service load, even in a state of compressive stress. Concrete elements are below.
How Prestressed Concrete Works
The pre-compression stress is used to reduce or offset the tensile stress of Concrete caused by the load, to control the tensile stress of the structural components to a small range, even in a compressed state, to delay the appearance and development of concrete cracks, thereby improving the resistance of the components. Crack performance and stiffness.
Advantages of Prestressed Concrete
1. Good crack resistance and high rigidity. Due to the prestressing of the components, the appearance of cracks is significantly delayed. Under the action of the load, the components may not appear to crack, or the cracks may be delayed, so the stiffness of the components is improved, and the durability of the structure is increased.
2. Save materials and reduce self-weight. Because its structure must use high-strength materials, it can reduce the number of steel bars and the section size of components, save steel and Concrete, and reduce the self-weight of the structure, which has obvious advantages for large-span heavy-load structures.
3. It can reduce the vertical shear force and primary tensile stress of concrete beams. The curved reinforcement (bundle) of the prestressed concrete beam can reduce the vertical shear force near the support in the beam. Because of the existence of prestress on the concrete section, the principal tensile stress under the load is also reduced. This is beneficial to reduce the web thickness of the beam so that the self-weight of the prestressed concrete beam can be further reduced.
4. Improve the stability of compression components. When the compression member is relatively long and slender, it is easy to be bent after receiving a certain pressure, resulting in loss of stability and destruction. If prestressing is applied to the reinforced concrete column so that the longitudinally stressed steel bars are tensioned very tightly, not only the prestressed steel bars themselves are not easy to bend, but they also can help the surrounding Concrete to improve the ability to resist bending.
5. Improve the fatigue resistance of components. Because the rebar with strong prestress has relatively small changes in stress caused by loading or unloading during the use stage. It can improve fatigue strength, which is very beneficial for structures that bear dynamic loads.
6. Prestress can be used as a means of connecting structural components to promote the development of new systems and construction methods for large-span structures
Some requirements for prestressed steel bars:
(1) The strength should be high. The tensile stress of prestressed steel bars will cause various stress losses during the entire fabrication and use of components. The sum of these losses can sometimes reach more than 200N/mm² if the strength of the steel bar used is not high, the stress established during tension will even be lost.
(2) It must have good adhesion with Concrete. Especially in the pretensioning method, there must be a high bond self-anchoring strength between the prestressed steel bar and the Concrete. For some high-strength smooth steel wire, it is necessary to go through "scoring," "pressure wave," or "kink" so that it can form scored steel wire, corrugated steel wire, and kinked steel wire to increase the bonding force.
(3) There must be sufficient plasticity and good processing properties. The higher the strength of the steel, the lower its plasticity. When the plasticity of the steel bar is too low, especially under low temperature and impact loading conditions, a brittle fracture may occur. Good workability means that the welding performance is good. When the upsetting head anchor plate is used, the upsetting of the steel bar head does not affect the original mechanical properties, etc.
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Twitter recently announced that it had reached an agreement with Musk to take full ownership of the company for $54.20 per share, or about $44 billion in cash. After the deal, Twitter will become a privately held company. The deal, which has been unanimously approved by Twitter's board but still requires shareholder and regulatory approvals, is expected to close in 2022.
After Tesla CEO Elon Musk's acquisition of Twitter was finalized, Twitter founder Jack Dorsey sent out a series of six tweets expressing his expectations for Musk.
Dorsey called Twitter his biggest regret, saying, “The idea and service is all that matters to me, and I will do whatever it takes to protect both. Twitter as a company has always been my sole issue and my biggest regret. It has been owned by Wall Street and the ad model. Taking it back from Wall Street is the correct first step.
"In principle, I don't believe anyone should own or run Twitter," Dorsey goes on. He thinks the service is a public good.
He called Musk a "singular solution" to Twitter's problems, "Elon's goal of creating a platform that is" Maximally trusted and inclusive "is the right one." He wrote, "Thank you both for getting the company out of an impossible situation. This is the right path... I believe it with all my heart."
Besides, because of the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk Prestressed Concrete are still very uncertain.
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