Different from macroscopic materials, nanomaterials have four unique effects, namely small size effect, surface effect, quantum effect and macroscopic quantum tunneling effect, which have excellent adsorption capacity and high reduction performance, which can significantly improve the reaction of nanometer iron powder materials. In recent years, nano-iron powder not only has increasing application potential in environmental restoration, ecological protection, and pollution control. Whether it is heavy metal removal or the degradation of inorganic and organic pollutants, it can use multiple reaction mechanisms to give full play to its direct potential. Moreover, as cutting-edge technology with low secondary pollution and strong remediation ability, the nano-iron powder can also provide a cost-effective solution in the field of environmental remediation, and attention is increasing day by day.
Studies have shown that nano-scale iron particles can effectively deal with many forms of ground pollution, including ground polluted by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), chlorinated organic solvents and organochlorine pesticides. Nano-sized iron particles are easily transported through groundwater and can be processed in situ. In addition, the nanoparticle-water slurry can be injected into the contaminated area and stay there for a long time. The combination of these factors makes this method cheaper than the most commonly used alternatives.
Researchers found that although metallic iron nanoparticles can repair pollutants very well, they tend to clump on the soil surface. In response, carbon nanoparticles and water-soluble polyelectrolytes have been used as carriers for metallic iron nanoparticles. The hydrophobic pollutants adsorb to these carriers, thereby improving the air permeability of sand and soil.
Field tests generally confirmed the laboratory's findings. However, research is still ongoing, and nano-sized iron particles have not yet been widely used to deal with ground pollution.
Are iron oxide nanoparticles safe?
Iron oxide-based materials, such as magnetite and maghemite, are considered safe and are currently also clinically used as MRI contrast agents. Iron-based metal oxides have strong magnetic properties and are commonly used in the production of MNP.
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