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What is the lithium Intercalation Mechanism of Graphite?

Russian president demanded that exports of Russian gas to "unfriendly" countries be settled in rubles. The demand has raised concerns in Germany about possible supply disruptions and the impact on industry and households if utilities do not pay in robles. Europe gets about 40% of its gas from Russia. Last year, Europe imported about 155 billion cubic meters. Germany, Europe's largest economy, depends heavily on Russian gas.

The chief executive of Germany's E.ON said the German economy would face "significant damage, which should be avoided if possible" without Russian supplies. He also said it would take Germany three years to wean itself off Russian gas.  

In the event of a supply disruption, Germany's gas network regulator would prioritize home heating over industrial use, so energy-hungry manufacturers such as steelmakers would be the first to suffer, he said.

The volatile international situations will continue to affect the markets and prices of many commodities like the Graphite.

Graphite has good conductivity, high crystallinity, and a well-layered structure. It is very suitable for repeated intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions. It is currently the most widely used and most mature negative electrode material. After lithium ions are intercalated between the graphite layers, a lithium intercalation compound LixC6 (0≤x≤1) is formed, and the theoretical capacity can reach 372mAh/g (x=1). The reaction formula is: xLi++6C+xe-→LixC6

Lithium-ion intercalation changes the stacking mode between graphite layers from ABAB to AAAA.

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Graphite modification treatment

Since the graphite interlayer spacing (d≤0.34nm) is smaller than the crystal plane interlayer spacing (0.37nm) of the graphite lithium intercalation compound LixC6, the graphite layer spacing changes during the charging and discharging process, which is easy to cause the graphite layer to peel off, pulverize, and also occur. Lithium ions and organic solvent molecules co-intercalate into the graphite layer, and the organic solvent decomposes, affecting the battery cycle performance.

Through graphite modification, such as oxidation on the surface of graphite and coating of polymer pyrolytic carbon, composite graphite with a core-shell structure can be formed, improving the charge and discharge performance of graphite and increasing the specific capacity.

Other anode materials

At present, graphite is the mainstream commercial lithium battery negative electrode material. Its theoretical gram capacity is 372mAh/g. The graphite negative electrode material with better performance on the market can reach 360mAh/g, and the gram capacity gradually tends to the limit value. Although graphite as a negative electrode material has disadvantages such as low gram capacity and cycle deviation, because of the high-cost performance of graphite-based negative electrode materials, it will not be replaced by new materials immediately. The specific reasons are as follows:

1. The new anode material technology is immature, and it will take a long time for performance improvement;

2. The price of new anode materials is higher, and the price advantage of graphite anodes is obvious;

3. The negative electrode material needs to be used in combination with the positive electrode material, electrolyte, etc., and the specific capacity of the current positive electrode material is generally low.

High-quality graphite supplier

Luoyang Moon & Star New Energy Technology Co., LTD, founded on October 17, 2008, is a high-tech enterprise committed to developing, producing, processing, selling, and technical services of lithium-ion battery anode materials. After more than 10 years of development, the company has gradually developed into a diversified product structure with natural graphite, artificial graphite, composite graphite, intermediate phase, and other negative materials (silicon-carbon materials, etc.). The products are widely used in high-end lithium-ion digital power and energy storage batteries. If you are looking for Lithium battery anode material, click on the needed products and send us an inquiry:sales@graphite-corp.com

 


The development of the Russia-Ukraine conflict will continue to dominate the commodity prices such as the Graphite in the future. If the conflict eases or cools, Russia and Ukraine go back to negotiate, commodity prices would fall. However, if the situation between Russia and Ukraine deteriorates further, or evolves into a full-scale war, the price of the Graphite is predicted to see further improvement over the coming days.

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