Russia's insistence on paying for Russian gas in rubles has rattled European countries: Greece held an emergency meeting of suppliers, the Dutch government would urge consumers to use less gas, and the French energy regulator told consumers not to panic. Russian gas meets one-third of Europe's annual energy needs.
Russia said they could expand their demand for ruble payments for other commodities, including oil, grain, fertilizer, coal, and metals, which raised the risk of recession in Europe and the US.
Moscow is expected to unveil its ruble payment plan in early April, but it said it would not immediately ask buyers to pay for gas in rubles.
Western countries have said paying in rubles would be a breach of contract, and renegotiation could take months or longer. This uncertainty has pushed commodity market prices higher.
The supply and prices of other commodities like the polycarboxylate ether,PCE powder could also be affected.
Chemical admixtures are in high demand in concrete technology to improve their properties such as durability, fluidity, setting and mechanical properties. Among these chemical admixtures,superplasticizers are mainly used to improve fluidity at relatively low water-cement ratios (W/C). First-generation superplasticizers (SP) such as sulfonated naphthalene formaldehyde condensate (SNF) and sulfamic acid formaldehyde condensate (ASF) can disperse cement particles through an electrostatic repulsion mechanism. A new generation of SP is based on polycarboxylate ether comb copolymers with carboxyl groups and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) side chains. PCE copolymers can generate electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance, therefore, they provide better performance than the older generation. The molecular weight and side chain length of PCE can be easily tailored to make it superior to other kinds of SP.
Free radical polymerization (FRP) is widely used to prepare PCE copolymers, but has less control over molecular weight and molecular weight distribution (even with chain transfer agents to control the polydispersity index D = Mw/Mn values are usually higher than 1.5 molar mass) , producing polymer chains with broad molar mass distributions and potential variations in chemical composition Monomers with different reactivity. Over the past two decades, the controlled radical polymerization technique has been developed as a general method that provides free radical synthesis of polymers with predetermined molecular weights and narrow molar mass dispersion. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization is a controlled/living radical polymerization technique that is compatible with a wide variety of monomers. Only very few studies have used RAFT polymerization to prepare PCE superplasticizers, focusing on block copolymers ignoring their potential applications in PCE random copolymers.
To gain an accurate understanding of the effects of side chain length and charge properties on PCE adsorption behavior, we employed RAFT polymerization in this work to obtain well-defined copolymers with different side chains and functions, enabling a more systematic assessment of the structural parameters of PCE. Performance. This is the first study to report the use of well-defined copolymers (D < 1.3) to compare the effects of side chain length and charge type of PCE on the dispersibility of cement pastes. In this study, two copolymers containing COO - or SO 3 - as charge types (PCE and PSE, respectively) were synthesized to investigate the effect of specific functional negatively charged groups on the adsorption and rheological properties of cement pastes. influences. On the other hand, in the case of PCE copolymers, three different PEO side chain lengths were employed to study their effect on cement fluidity. Adsorption studies, zeta potential measurements, mobility and rheological properties are also explored in this work.
TRUNNANO is a concrete additives supplier with over 12 years experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development. We accept payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union and Paypal. Trunnano will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea.
If you are looking for high quality PCE powder, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry.
China's non-manufacturing purchasing managers index for March was released by the China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing and the Service Industry Survey Center of the National Bureau of Statistics today. An index of business activity for the non-manufacturing sector as a whole fell below 50 percent.
China's non-manufacturing business activity index was 48.4%, down 3.2 percentage points from the previous month. The new orders index was 45.7 percent, down 1.9 percentage points from the previous month, indicating a significant slowdown in the growth of supply and demand in the non-manufacturing sector from the previous month. In terms of sectors, the business activity index and new order index of transportation, accommodation and catering, culture, sports and entertainment, and tourism-related industries all declined significantly from the previous month.
Then the polycarboxylate ether,PCE powder of the market may be affected by significant changes, the price will also be volatile, if you want to know the latest news of the polycarboxylate ether,PCE powder, welcome to contact us.
Zinc sulfide ZnS is an inorganic compound, which is a white or light yellow powder with excellent fluorescence effect and electroluminescence function, especially nano-zinc sulfide has a unique photoelectric effect, which is used in electricity, magn…
Tungsten Oxide WO3 is also called tungsten trioxide. Tungsten trioxide is an inorganic substance, chemical formula WO3, is a light yellow crystalline powder. Insoluble in water, soluble in alkali, slightly soluble in acid.Used for making high melting…
Boron nitride is a crystal composed of nitrogen atoms and boron atoms.The chemical composition is43.6%boron and56.4%nitrogen,with four different variants:hexagonal boron nitride,rhombohedral boron nitride,cubic nitride Boron,and wurtzite boron nitrid…